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Harrap's Wild Flowers: A complete list of names

I am trying to make the English names of British wild flowers more 'user-friendly' by removing many of the hyphens and apostrophes. This should make them less 'mysterious', easier to spell and use, and easier to find in the index. I have published two short notes on this in BSBI News and am happy for any comments! Please use the 'contact us' tab to the left to send an e-mail.

Revised Guidelines for English Names (these update my BSBI News articles)

1. Hyphens should not be used merely to reduced English names to two 'words' (e.g. Early-purple Orchid, Small-white Orchid, Dark-red Helleborine, Good-King-Henry).

2. Hyphens should not be used to create artificial groups or sub-groups (e.g. Common Ramping-fumitory, Purple Milk-vetch, Common Dog-violet, Common Dog-rose), especially where the sole purpose is to create two 'words'.

3. Hyphens should not be used to indicate the lack of a close taxonomic relationship (e.g. Yelow Loosestrife vs Purple-loosestrfe, Goat's-rue vs Rue, Thorn-apple, Ground-ivy, Hottentot-fig).

4. Hyphens should not be used where generic terms such as 'grass', 'wort' or 'herb' are used (e.g. Herb-Robert, Herb-Paris), unless this would result in a clumsy compound word (e.g. Yellowwort rather than Yellow-wort).

5. Hyphens should not be used to join two words, nether of which are 'plant' names, for no purpose (e.g. Lady's-mantle, Shepherd's-purse, Jacob's-ladder, Hound's-tongue, Weasel's-snout, Ploughman's-spikenard, Shepherd's-needle, Solomon's-seal).

6. Hyphens should not be the default for longer words (e.g. Grass-of-Parnassus, Pellitory-of-the-wall, Lily-of-the-Valley, Star-of-Bethlehem)

7. Where possible, the hyphen should be dropped if this accords with normal English usage (e.g. Horseradish, watercress)

8. Where possible, the hyphen should be dropped in genuine group names to produce one word, as long as the result is easy to spell, the pronounciation is clear, the root words are still obvious, and it looks elegant (e.g. rockrose, wintercress, pennycress, bittercress, rockcress, seablite, waterlily

9. Where possible, both possessive apostrophe and hyphen should be dropped to produce one word, as long as the result is easy to spell, the pronounciation is clear, the root words are still obvious, and it looks elegant (e.g. Monkshood, Birdsfoot, Birdsfoot Trefoil, Haresfoot, Cranesbill, Storksbill, Yellow Birdsnest, Goatsbeard, Hawksbeard, Coltsfoot, Birdsnest Orchid, Marestail; I have also included Catsear, but albeit slight reservations).

10. Hyphens can be retained to indicate genuine groupings (i.e. where 3 or more plants have the group name and it reflects a taxonomic grouping that is regularly used in the field), where the two words cannot easily be joined to produce a single word (and where leaving them unhyphenated would be confusing, usually because the compound name includes another plant group name)


11. Hyphens can be retained in the few cases where traditional usage favours them (e.g. Forget-me-not).

12. Hyphens can be retained where they enhance pronounciation or readability (e.g. Pirri-pirri-bur).

13. Hyphens can be retained where they are essential to the meaning (e.g. Touch-me-not Balsam), or perhaps essential to the meaning (Mind-your-own-business, Fox-and-cubs, Lords-and-ladies).

14. Both the possessive apostrophe and the hyphen should be retained where it is not possible to loose them, and they are necessary to construct a genuine group name (e.g. St John's-wort)

15. The possessive apostrophe should be retained, but the hyphen dropped, even if is it could be argued that it is a genuine grouping, if the result is unambiguous (usually because no other plant group name is involved (e.g. Solomon's Seal)

I realise that there are inconsustencies. For example, yellow cress (yellowcress), Pirri-pirri-bur (Pirri-pirri Bur)


Common Poppy Papaver rhoeas
Long-headed Poppy Papaver dubium
Yellow-juiced Poppy Papaver lecoqii
Rough Poppy Papaver hybridum
Prickly Poppy Papaver argemone
Opium Poppy Papaver somniferum
Greater Celandine Chelidonium majus
Yellow Horned Poppy Glaucium flavum
Welsh Poppy Meconopsis cambrica
Common Fumitory Fumaria officinalis
Common Ramping Fumitory Fumaria muralis
Climbing Corydalis Ceratocapnos claviculata
Yellow Corydalis Pseudofumaria lutea
Meadow Buttercup Ranunculus acris
Goldilocks Buttercup Ranunculus auricomus
Creeping Buttercup Ranunculus repens
Bulbous Buttercup Ranunculus bulbosus
Hairy Buttercup Ranunculus sardous
Small-flowered Buttercup Ranunculus parviflorus
Lesser Spearwort Ranunculus flammula
Greater Spearwort Ranunculus lingua
Winter Aconite Eranthis hyemalis
Lesser Celandine Ficaria verna
Celery-leaved Buttercup Ranunculus sceleratus
Mousetail Myosurus minimus
Stinking Hellebore Helleborus foetidus
Green Hellebore Helleborus viridis
Marsh Marigold Caltha palustris
Globeflower Trollius europaeus
Wood Anemone Anemone nemorosa
Pasqueflower Pulsatilla vulgaris
Columbine Aquilegia vulgaris
Monkshood Aconitum napellus
Baneberry Actaea spicata
Alpine Meadow-rue Thalictrum alpinum
Common Meadow-rue Thalictrum flavum
Lesser Meadow-rue Thalictrum minus
Opposite-leaved Golden Saxifrage Chrysosplenium oppositifolium
Alternate-leaved Golden Saxifrage Chrysosplenium alternifolium
Meadow Saxifrage Saxifraga granulata
Rue-leaved Saxifrage Saxifraga tridactylites
Purple Saxifrage Saxifraga oppositifolia
Yellow Saxifrage Saxifraga aizoides
Mossy Saxifrage Saxifraga hypnoides
Starry Saxifrage Saxifraga stellaris
Orpine Sedum telephium
Roseroot Sedum rosea
Reflexed Stonecrop Sedum rupestre
Rock Stonecrop Sedum forsterianum
Biting Stonecrop Sedum acre
Hairy Stonecrop Sedum villosum
White Stonecrop Sedum album
English Stonecrop Sedum anglicum
Navelwort Umbilicus rupestris
Mossy Stonecrop Crassula tillaea
New Zealand Pigmyweed Crassula helmsii
Purple Milk Vetch Astragalus danicus
Goat’s Rue Galega officinalis
Sainfoin Onobrychis viciifolia
Kidney Vetch Anthyllis vulneraria
Horseshoe Vetch Hippocrepis comosa
Common Birdsfoot Trefoil Lotus corniculatus
Greater Birdsfoot Trefoil Lotus pedunculatus
Narrow-leaved Birdsfoot Trefoil Lotus tenuis
Hairy Birdsfoot Trefoil Lotus subbiflorus
Tufted Vetch Vicia cracca
Bush Vetch Vicia sepium
Common Vetch Vicia sativa
Spring Vetch Vicia lathyroides
Hairy Tare Vicia hirsuta
Smooth Tare Vicia tetrasperma
Slender Tare Vicia parviflora
Wood Vetch Vicia sylvatica
Wood Bitter Vetch Vicia orobus
Bitter Vetch Lathyrus linifolius
Bithynian Vetch Vicia bithynica
Yellow Vetch Vicia lutea
Meadow Vetchling Lathyrus pratensis
Yellow Vetchling Lathyrus aphaca
Sea Pea Lathyrus japonicus
Marsh Pea Lathyrus palustris
Wild Liquorice Astragalus glycyphyllos
Grass Vetchling Lathyrus nissolia
Narrow-leaved Everlasting Pea Lathyrus sylvestris
Broad-leaved Everlasting Pea Lathyrus latifolius
Common Restharrow Ononis repens
Spiny Restharrow Ononis spinosa
Ribbed Melilot Melilotus officinalis
Tall Melilot Melilotus altissimus
White Melilot Melilotus albus
Lucerne Medicago sativa subspecies sativa
Sickle Medick Medicago sativa subspecies falcata
Sand Lucerne Medicago sativa subspecies varia
Black Medick Medicago lupulina
Spotted Medick Medicago arabica
Bur Medick Medicago minima
Toothed Medick Medicago polymorpha
Birdsfoot Ornithopus perpusillus
Hop Trefoil Trifolium campestre
Lesser Trefoil Trifolium dubium
Slender Trefoil Trifolium micranthum
White Clover Trifolium repens
Alsike Clover Trifolium hybridum
Red Clover Trifolium pratense
Zigzag Clover Trifolium medium

Strawberry Clover Trifolium fragiferum
Sea Clover Trifolium squamosum
Clustered Clover Trifolium glomeratum
Knotted Clover Trifolium striatum
Rough Clover Trifolium scabrum
Birdsfoot Clover Trifolium ornithopodioides
Subterranean Clover Trifolium subterraneum
Suffocated Clover Trifolium suffocatum
Sulphur Clover Trifolium ochroleucon
Haresfoot Clover Trifolium arvense
Common Milkwort Polygala vulgaris
Heath Milkwort Polygala serpyllifolia
Chalk Milkwort Polygala calcarea
Mountain Avens Dryas octopetala
Meadowsweet Filipendula ulmaria
Dropwort Filipendula vulgaris
Silverweed Potentilla anserina
Hoary Cinquefoil Potentilla argentea
Tormentil Potentilla erecta
Creeping Cinquefoil Potentilla reptans
Trailing Tormentil Potentilla anglica
Spring Cinquefoil Potentilla tabernaemontani
Barren Strawberry Potentilla sterilis
Wild Strawberry Fragaria vesca
Water Avens Geum rivale
Wood Avens Geum urbanum
Marsh Cinquefoil Comarum palustre
Agrimony Agrimonia eupatoria
Fragrant Agrimony Agrimonia procera
Salad Burnet Poterium sanguisorba
Great Burnet Sanguisorba officinalis
Lady’s Mantle Alchemilla vulgaris agg.
Soft Lady’s Mantle Alchemilla mollis
Alpine Lady’s Mantle Alchemilla alpina
Parsley Piert Aphanes arvensis
Slender Parsley Piert Aphanes australis
Pirri-pirri-bur Acaena novae-zelandiae
Common Nettle Urtica dioica
Fen Nettle subspecies galeopsifolia
Small Nettle Urtica urens
Pellitory of the Wall Parietaria judaica
Mind-your-own-business Soleirolia soleirolii
Grass of Parnassus Parnassia palustris
Wood Sorrel Oxalis acetosella
Procumbent Yellow Sorrel Oxalis corniculata
Pink Sorrel Oxalis articulata
Sun Spurge Euphorbia helioscopia
Cypress Spurge Euphorbia cyparissias
Petty Spurge Euphorbia peplis
Dwarf Spurge Euphorbia exigua
Sea Spurge Euphorbia paralias
Portland Spurge Euphorbia portlandica
Wood Spurge Euphorbia amygdaloides
Caper Spurge Euphorbia lathyris
Dog’s Mercury Mercurialis perennis
Annual Mercury Mercurialis annua
Sweet Violet Viola odorata
Hairy Violet Viola hirta
Common Dog Violet Viola riviniana
Early Dog Violet Viola reichenbachiana
Heath Dog Violet Viola canina
Pale Dog Violet Viola lactea
Field Pansy Viola arvensis
Wild Pansy Viola tricolor
Sand Pansy subspecies curtisii
Marsh Violet Viola palustris
Mountain Pansy Viola lutea
Fairy Flax Linum catharticum
Allseed Radiola linoides
Pale Flax Linum bienne
Flax Linum usitatissimum
Perforate St John’s-wort Hypericum perforatum
Imperforate St John’s-wort Hypericum maculatum
Slender St John’s-wort Hypericum pulchrum
Trailing St John’s-wort Hypericum humifusum
Marsh St John’s-wort Hypericum elodes
Tutsan Hypericum androsaemum
Similar Species Rose-of-Sharon H. calycinum
Hairy St John’s-wort Hypericum hirsutum
Pale St John’s-wort Hypericum montanum
Square-stalked St John’s-wort Hypericum tetrapterum
Meadow Cranesbill Geranium pratense
Dusky Cranesbill Geranium phaeum
Wood Cranesbill Geranium sylvaticum
Bloody Cranesbill Geranium sanguineum
Dovesfoot Cranesbill Geranium molle
Small-flowered Cranesbill Geranium pusillum
Round-leaved Cranesbill Geranium rotundifolium
Cut-leaved Cranesbill Geranium dissectum
Long-stalked Cranesbill Geranium columbinum
Shining Cranesbill Geranium lucidum
Hedgerow Cranesbill Geranium pyrenaicum
Herb Robert Geranium robertianum
Common Storksbill Erodium cicutarium
Sticky Storksbill Erodium lebelii
Musk Storksbill Erodium moschatum
Sea Storksbill Erodium maritimum
Purple Loosestrife Lythrum salicaria
Water Purslane Lythrum portula
Great Willowherb Epilobium hirsutum
Hoary Willowherb Epilobium parviflorum
Square-stalked Willowherb Epilobium tetragonum
Short-fruited Willowherb Epilobium obscurum
American Willowherb Epilobium ciliatum
Broad-leaved Willowherb Epilobium montanum
Spear-leaved Willowherb Epilobium lanceolatum
Pale Willowherb Epilobium roseum
Marsh Willowherb Epilobium palustre
New Zealand Willowherb Epilobium brunnescens
Rosebay Willowherb Chamerion angustifolium
Enchanter’s Nightshade Circaea lutetiana
Large-flowered Evening-primrose Oenothera glazioviana
Common Mallow Malva sylvestris
Dwarf Mallow Malva neglecta
Musk Mallow Malva moschata
Tree Mallow Malva arborea
Marsh Mallow Althaea officinalis
Common Rockrose Helianthemum nummularium
Hoary Rockrose Helianthemum oelandicum
Weld Reseda luteola
Wild Mignonette Reseda lutea
Wild Candytuft Iberis amara
Sea Rocket Cakile maritima
Sea Kale Crambe maritima
Wintercress Barbarea vulgaris
Medium-flowered Wintercress Barbarea intermedia
American Wintercress Barbarea verna
Marsh Yellow Cress Rorippa palustris
Creeping Yellow Cress Rorippa sylvestris
Great Yellow Cress Rorippa amphibia
Annual Wall Rocket Diplotaxis muralis
Perennial Wall Rocket Diplotaxis muralis
Treacle Mustard Erysimum cheiranthoides
Wallflower Erysimum cheiri
Flixweed Descurainia sophia
Bastard Cabbage Rapistrum rugosum
Hedge Mustard Sisymbrium officinale
Eastern Rocket Sisymbrium orientale
Tall Rocket Sisymbrium altissimum
Hoary Mustard Hirschfeldia incana
Charlock Sinapis arvensis
White Mustard Sinapis alba
Rape Brassica napus
Turnip Brassica rapa
Black Mustard Brassica nigra
Wild Cabbage Brassica oleracea var. oleracea
Wild Radish Raphanus raphanistrum
Sea Radish subspecies maritimus
Garlic Mustard Alliaria petiolata
Horseradish Armoracia rusticana
Dittander Lepidium latifolium
Hoary Cress Lepidium draba
Smith’s Pepperwort Lepidium heterophyllum
Narrow-leaved Pepperwort Lepidium ruderale
Field Pepperwort Lepidium campestre
Swine Cress Lepidium coronopus
Lesser Swine Cress Lepidium didymum
Common Scurvygrass Cochlearia officinalis
Pyrenean Scurvygrass Cochlearia pyrenaica
English Scurvygrass Cochlearia anglica
Danish Scurvygrass Cochlearia danica
Alpine Pennycress Noccaea caerulescens
Hairy Rockcress Arabis hirsuta
Thale Cress Arabidopsis thaliana
Field Pennycress Thlaspi arvense
Shepherd’s Purse Capsella bursa-pastoris
Shepherd’s Cress Teesdalia nudicaulis
Cuckooflower Cardamine pratensis
Coralroot Cardamine bulbifera
Hairy Bittercress Cardamine hirsuta
Wavy Bittercress Cardamine flexuosa
Narrow-leaved Bittercress Cardamine impatiens
Large Bittercress Cardamine amara
Watercress Nasturtium officinale
Narrow-fruited Watercress N. microphyllum
Common Whitlowgrass Erophila verna
Hoary Whitlowgrass Draba incana
Hutchinsia Hornungia petraea
Dame’s Violet Hesperis matronalis
Honesty Lunaria annua
Bastard Toadflax Thesium humifusum
Moschatel Adoxa moschatellina
Common Sea-lavender Limonium vulgare
Lax-flowered Sea-lavender Limonium humile
Rock Sea-lavender Limonium binervosum agg.
Matted Sea-lavender Limonium bellidifolium
Thrift Armeria maritima
Sea Heath Frankenia laevis
Common Bistort Persicaria bistorta
Mountain Sorrel Oxyria digyna
Alpine Bistort Persicaria vivipara
Redshank Persicaria maculosa
Pale Persicaria Persicaria lapathifolia
Amphibious Bistort Persicaria amphibia
Water-pepper Persicaria hydropiper
Black Bindweed Fallopia convolvulus
Knotgrass Polygonum aviculare agg.
Common Sorrel Rumex acetosa
Sheep’s Sorrel Rumex acetosella
Japanese Knotweed Fallopia japonica
Broad-leaved Dock Rumex obtusifolius
Curled Dock Rumex crispus
Clustered Dock Rumex conglomeratus
Wood Dock Rumex sanguineus
Fiddle Dock Rumex pulcher
Water Dock Rumex hydrolapathum
Marsh Dock Rumex palustris
Golden Dock Rumex maritimus
Round-leaved Sundew Drosera rotundifolia
Oblong-leaved Sundew Drosera intermedia
Great Sundew Drosera anglica
Ragged Robin Silene flos-cuculi
Soapwort Saponaria officinalis
Corncockle Agrostemma githago
Red Campion Silene dioica
Bladder Campion Silene vulgaris
White Campion Silene latifolia
Night-flowering Catchfly Silene noctiflora
Sea Campion Silene uniflora
Nottingham Catchfly Silene nutans
Moss Campion Silene acaulis
Maiden Pink Dianthus deltoides
Deptford Pink Dianthus armeria
Thyme-leaved Sandwort Arenaria serpyllifolia
Slender Sandwort Arenaria leptoclados
Spring Sandwort Minuartia verna
Three-nerved Sandwort Moehringia trinervia
Lesser Chickweed Stellaria pallida
Common Chickweed Stellaria media
Greater Chickweed Stellaria neglecta
Greater Stitchwort Stellaria holostea
Bog Stitchwort Stellaria uliginosa
Lesser Stitchwort Stellaria graminea
Marsh Stitchwort Stellaria palustris
Wood Stitchwort Stellaria nemorum
Water Chickweed Myosoton aquaticum
Sea Sandwort Honckenya peploides
Field Mouse-ear Cerastium arvense
Sticky Mouse-ear
Little Mouse-ear
Sea Mouse-ear Cerastium diffusum
Common Mouse-ear Cerastium fontanum
Upright Chickweed Moenchia erecta
Procumbent Pearlwort Sagina procumbens
Annual Pearlwort Sagina apetala
Sea Pearlwort Sagina maritima
Knotted Pearlwort Sagina nodosa
Heath Pearlwort Sagina subulata
Annual Knawel Scleranthus annuus
Greater Sea Spurrey Spergularia media
Lesser Sea Spurrey Spergularia marina
Rock Sea Spurrey Spergularia rupicola
Sand Spurrey Spergularia rubra
Corn Spurrey Spergula arvensis
Good King Henry Chenopodium bonus-henricus
Red Goosefoot Chenopodium rubrum
Fat Hen Chenopodium album
Fig-leaved Goosefoot Chenopodium ficifolium
Many-seeded Goosefoot Chenopodium polyspermum
Spear-leaved Orache Atriplex prostrata
Common Orache Atriplex patula
Grass-leaved Orache Atriplex littoralis
Frosted Orache Atriplex laciniata
Sea Purslane Atriplex portulacoides
Prickly Saltwort Salsola kali
glassworts Salicornia spp
Perennial Glasswort Sarcocornia perennis
Annual Seablite Suaeda maritima
Sea Beet Beta vulgaris subspecies maritima
Indian Balsam Impatiens glandulifera
Touch-me-not Balsam Impatiens noli-tangere
Small Balsam Impatiens parviflora
Orange Balsam Impatiens capensis
Jacob’s Ladder Polemonium caeruleum
Springbeauty Claytonia perfoliata
Pink Purslane Claytonia sibirica
Blinks Montia fontana
Chickweed Wintergreen Trientalis europaea
Cyclamen (‘Sowbread’) Cyclamen hederifolium
Primrose Primula vulgaris
Bird’s-eye Primrose Primula farinosa
Cowslip Primula veris
Oxlip Primula elatior
Brookweed Samolus valerandi
Sea Milkwort Glaux maritima
Bog Pimpernel Anagallis tenella
Scarlet Pimpernel Anagallis arvensis
Chaffweed Centunculus minimus
Yellow Pimpernel Lysimachia nemorum
Creeping Jenny Lysimachia nummularia
Yellow Loosestrife Lysimachia vulgaris
Dotted Loosestrife Lysimachia punctata
Tufted Loosestrife Lysimachia thyrsiflora
Dwarf Cornel Cornus suecica
Yellow Birdsnest Hypopitys monotropa
Common Wintergreen Pyrola minor
Round-leaved Wintergreen Pyrola rotundifolia
Lady’s Bedstraw Galium verum
Crosswort Cruciata laevipes
Cleavers Galium aparine
Hedge Bedstraw Galium album
Northern Bedstraw Galium boreale
Heath Bedstraw Galium saxatile
Limestone Bedstraw Galium sterneri
Squinancywort Asperula cynanchica
Marsh Bedstraw Galium palustre
Fen Bedstraw Galium uliginosum
Woodruff Galium odoratum
Field Madder Sherardia arvensis
Wild Madder Rubia peregrina
Common Centaury Centaurium erythraea
Seaside Centaury Centaurium littorale
Lesser Centaury Centaurium pulchellum
Marsh Gentian Gentiana pneumonanthe
Spring Gentian Gentiana verna
Yellow-wort Blackstonia perfoliata
Autumn Gentian Gentianella amarella
Chiltern Gentian Gentianella germanica
Field Gentian Gentianella campestris
Yellow Centaury Cicendia filiformis
Greater Periwinkle Vinca major
Lesser Periwinkle Vinca minor
Viper’s Bugloss Echium vulgare
Common Fiddleneck Amsinckia micrantha
Common Gromwell Lithospermum officinale
Lungwort Pulmonaria officinalis
Green Alkanet Pentaglottis sempervirens
Bugloss Anchusa arvensis
Borage Borago officinalis
Common Comfrey Symphytum officinale
Tuberous Comfrey Symphytum tuberosum
Russian Comfrey Symphytum × uplandicum
White Comfrey Symphytum orientale
Creeping Comfrey Symphytum grandiflorum
Hound’s Tongue Cynoglossum officinale
Phacelia Phacelia tanacetifolia
Field Forget-me-not Myosotis arvensis
Early Forget-me-not Myosotis ramosissima
Changing Forget-me-not Myosotis discolor
Tufted Forget-me-not Myosotis laxa
Pale Forget-me-not Myosotis stolonifera
Creeping Forget-me-not Myosotis secunda
Water Forget-me-not Myosotis scorpioides
Wood Forget-me-not Myosotis sylvatica
Oysterplant Mertensia maritima
Dodder Cuscuta epithymum
Field Bindweed Convolvulus arvensis
Hedge Bindweed Calystegia sepium
Large Bindweed Calystegia silvatica
Sea Bindweed Calystegia soldanella
Black Nightshade Solanum nigrum
Green Nightshade Solanum physalifolium
Deadly Nightshade Atropa belladonna
Bittersweet Solanum dulcamara
Henbane Hyoscyamus niger
Thorn Apple Datura stramonium
Foxglove Digitalis purpurea
Fairy Foxglove Erinus alpinus
Common Field Speedwell Veronica persica
Green Field Speedwell Veronica agrestis
Grey Field Speedwell Veronica polita
Slender Speedwell Veronica filiformis
Ivy-leaved Speedwell Veronica hederifolia
Wall Speedwell Veronica arvensis
Pink Water Speedwell Veronica catenata
Blue Water Speedwell Veronica anagallis-aquatica
Marsh Speedwell Veronica scutellata
Brooklime Veronica beccabunga
Thyme-leaved Speedwell Veronica serpyllifolia
Spiked Speedwell Veronica spicata
Germander Speedwell Veronica chamaedrys
Wood Speedwell Veronica montana
Heath Speedwell Veronica officinalis
Sharp-leaved Fluellen Kickxia elatine
Round-leaved Fluellen Kickxia spuria
Cornish Moneywort Sibthorpia europaea
Common Toadflax Linaria vulgaris
Purple Toadflax Linaria purpurea
Pale Toadflax Linaria repens
Ivy-leaved Toadflax Cymbalaria muralis
Small Toadflax Chaenorhinum minus
Weasel’s Snout Misopates orontium
Ribwort Plantain Plantago lanceolata
Greater Plantain Plantago major
Buck’s-horn Plantain Plantago coronopus
Sea Plantain Plantago maritima
Hoary Plantain Plantago media
Water Figwort Scrophularia auriculata
Green Figwort Scrophularia umbrosa
Common Figwort Scrophularia nodosa
Balm-leaved Figwort Scrophularia scorodonia
Yellow Figwort Scrophularia vernalis
Great Mullein Verbascum thapsus
Dark Mullein Verbascum nigrum
Hoary Mullein Verbascum pulverulentum
White Dead-nettle Lamium album
Spotted Dead-nettle Lamium maculatum
Red Dead-nettle Lamium purpureum
Cut-leaved Dead-nettle Lamium hybridum
Henbit Dead-nettle Lamium amplexicaule
Hedge Woundwort Stachys sylvatica
Marsh Woundwort Stachys palustris
Field Woundwort Stachys arvensis
Black Horehound Ballota nigra
White Horehound Marrubium vulgare
Catmint Nepeta cataria
Common Hemp-nettle Galeopsis tetrahit
Bifid Hemp-nettle Galeopsis bifida
Large-flowered Hemp-nettle Galeopsis speciosa
Yellow Archangel Lamiastrum galeobdolon
Bastard Balm Melittis melissophyllum
Balm Melissa officinalis
Skullcap Scutellaria galericulata
Lesser Skullcap Scutellaria minor
Gypsywort Lycopus europaeus
Wild Clary Salvia verbenaca
Meadow Clary Salvia pratensis
Betony Betonica officinalis
Bugle Ajuga reptans
Ground Ivy Glechoma hederacea
Selfheal Prunella vulgaris
Wood Sage Teucrium scorodonia
Wild Marjoram Origanum vulgare
Common Calamint Clinopodium ascendens
Wild Basil Clinopodium vulgare
Basil Thyme Clinopodium acinos
Wild Thyme Thymus polytrichus
Large Thyme Thymus pulegioides
Water Mint Mentha aquatica
Corn Mint Mentha arvensis
Monkeyflower Mimulus guttatus
Hybrid Monkeyflower Mimulus × robertsii
eyebrights Euphrasia spp.
Common Cow-wheat Melampyrum pratense
Yellow Rattle Rhinanthus minor
Yellow Bartsia Parentucellia viscosa
Red Bartsia Odontites vernus
Lousewort Pedicularis sylvatica
Marsh Lousewort Pedicularis palustris
Common Broomrape Orobanche minor
Ivy Broomrape Orobanche hederae
Knapweed Broomrape Orobanche elatior
Yarrow Broomrape Orobanche purpurea
Thyme Broomrape Orobanche alba
Greater Broomrape Orobanche rapum-genistae
Toothwort Lathraea squamaria
Purple Toothwort Lathraea clandestina
Common Butterwort Pinguicula vulgaris
Pale Butterwort Pinguicula lusitanica
Bogbean Menyanthes trifoliata
Vervain Verbena officinalis
Clustered Bellflower Campanula glomerata
Harebell Campanula rotundifolia
Nettle-leaved Bellflower Campanula trachelium
Giant Bellflower Campanula latifolia
Venus’s Looking Glass Legousia hybrida
Peach-leaved Bellflower Campanula persicifolia
Trailing Bellflower Campanula poscharskyana
Sheep’s Bit Jasione montana
Round-headed Rampion Phyteuma orbiculare
Ivy-leaved Bellflower Wahlenbergia hederacea
Greater Burdock Arctium lappa
Lesser Burdock Arctium minus
Melancholy Thistle Cirsium heterophyllum
Meadow Thistle Cirsium dissectum
Dwarf Thistle Cirsium acaule
Creeping Thistle Cirsium arvense
Spear Thistle Cirsium vulgare
Marsh Thistle Cirsium palustre
Slender Thistle Carduus tenuiflorus
Welted Thistle Carduus crispus
Musk Thistle Carduus nutans
Woolly Thistle Cirsium eriophorum
Cotton Thistle Onopordum acanthium
Milk Thistle Silybum marianum
Saw-wort Serratula tinctoria
Carline Thistle Carlina vulgaris
Greater Knapweed Centaurea scabiosa
Common Knapweed Centaurea nigra
Cornflower Centaurea cyanus
Chicory Cichorium intybus
Common Blue Sowthistle Cicerbita macrophylla
Catsear Hypochaeris radicata
Smooth Catsear Hypochaeris glabra
Autumn Hawkbit Scorzoneroides autumnalis
Goatsbeard Tragopogon pratensis
Rough Hawkbit Leontodon hispidus
Lesser Hawkbit Leontodon saxatilis
Dandelion Taraxacum agg.
Mouse-ear Hawkweed Pilosella officinarum
Hawkweeds Hieracium agg.
Beaked Hawksbeard Crepis vesicaria
Smooth Hawksbeard Crepis capillaris
Rough Hawksbeard Crepis biennis
Marsh Hawksbeard Crepis paludosa
Bristly Oxtongue Helminthotheca echioides
Hawkweed Oxtongue Picris hieracioides
Wall Lettuce Mycelis muralis
Nipplewort Lapsana communis
Smooth Sowthistle Sonchus oleraceus
Prickly Lettuce Lactuca serriola
Great Lettuce Lactuca virosa
Common Cudweed Filago vulgaris
Mountain Everlasting Antennaria dioica
Heath Cudweed Gnaphalium sylvaticum
Marsh Cudweed Gnaphalium uliginosum
Small Cudweed Filago minima
Golden Samphire Inula crithmoides
Ploughman’s Spikenard Inula conyzae
Common Fleabane Pulicaria dysenterica
Goldenrod Solidago virgaurea
Daisy Bellis perennis
Mexican Fleabane Erigeron karvinskianus
Blue Fleabane Erigeron acris
Canadian Fleabane Conyza canadensis
Bilbao’s Fleabane Conyza floribunda
Guernsey Fleabane Conyza sumatrensis
Sea Aster Aster tripolium
Tansy Tanacetum vulgare
Feverfew Tanacetum parthenium
Mugwort Artemisia vulgaris
Wormwood Artemisia absinthium
Sea Wormwood Artemisia maritima
Yarrow Achillea millefolium
Sneezewort Achillea ptarmica
Hemp Agrimony Eupatorium cannabinum
Corn Marigold Glebionis segetum
Oxeye Daisy Leucanthemum vulgare
Fox-and-cubs Pilosella aurantiaca
Scentless Mayweed Tripleurospermum inodorum
Scented Mayweed Matricaria chamomilla
Sea Mayweed Tripleurospermum maritimum
Chamomile Chamaemelum nobile
Corn Chamomile Anthemis arvensis
Stinking Chamomile Anthemis cotula
Pineappleweed Matricaria discoidea
Common Ragwort Senecio jacobaea
Oxford Ragwort Senecio squalidus
Hoary Ragwort Senecio erucifolius
Marsh Ragwort Senecio aquaticus
Niger Guizotia abyssinica
Heath Groundsel Senecio sylvaticus
Sticky Groundsel Senecio viscosus
Groundsel Senecio vulgaris
Field Fleawort Tephroseris integrifolia
Gallant Soldier Galinsoga parviflora
Shaggy Soldier Galinsoga quadriradiata
Leopard’s Bane Doronicum pardalianches
Nodding Bur Marigold Bidens cernua
Trifid Bur Marigold Bidens tripartita
Butterbur Petasites hybridus
Winter Heliotrope Petasites fragrans
Coltsfoot Tussilago farfara
Hottentot Fig Carpobrotus edulis
Common Valerian Valeriana officinalis
Marsh Valerian Valeriana dioica
Common Cornsalad Valerianella locusta
Red Valerian Centranthus ruber
Field Scabious Knautia arvensis
Small Scabious Scabiosa columbaria
Devil’s Bit Scabious Succisa pratensis
Wild Teasel Dipsacus fullonum
Small Teasel Dipsacus pilosus
Cow Parsley Anthriscus sylvestris
Rough Chervil Chaerophyllum temulum
Upright Hedge Parsley Torilis japonica
Giant Hogweed Heracleum mantegazzianum
Hogweed Heracleum sphondylium
Hemlock Conium maculatum
Bur Chervil Anthriscus caucalis
Knotted Hedge Parsley Torilis nodosa
Sweet Cicely Myrrhis odorata
Shepherd’s Needle Scandix pecten-veneris
Fool’s Parsley Aethusa cynapium
Wild Carrot Daucus carota
Pepper Saxifrage Silaum silaus
Stone Parsley Sison amomum
Corn Parsley Petroselinum segetum
Burnet Saxifrage Pimpinella saxifraga
Greater Burnet Saxifrage Pimpinella major
Sanicle Sanicula europaea
Pignut Conopodium majus
Rock Samphire Crithmum maritimum
Alexanders Smyrnium olusatrum
Fennel Foeniculum vulgare
Wild Parsnip Pastinaca sativa
Wild Angelica Angelica sylvestris
Ground Elder Aegopodium podagraria
Wild Celery Apium graveolens
Greater Water Parsnip Sium latifolium
Cowbane Cicuta virosa
Milk Parsley Thyselium palustre
Lesser Water Parsnip Berula erecta
Fool’s Watercress Apium nodiflorum
Lesser Marshwort Apium inundatum
Hemlock Water-dropwort Oenanthe crocata
Tubular Water-dropwort Oenanthe fistulosa
Parsley Water-dropwort Oenanthe lachenalii
Corky-fruited Water-dropwort Oenanthe pimpinelloides
Fine-leaved Water-dropwort Oenanthe aquatica
River Water-dropwort Oenanthe fluviatilis
Scots Lovage Ligusticum scoticum
Spignel Meum athamanticum
Whorled Caraway Carum verticillatum
Slender Hare’s Ear Bupleurum tenuissimum
Sea Holly Eryngium maritimum
Marsh Pennywort Hydrocotyle vulgaris
Broad-leaved Helleborine Epipactis helleborine
Narrow-lipped Helleborine Epipactis leptochila
Dark Red Helleborine Epipactis atrorubens
Violet Helleborine Epipactis purpurata
Green-flowered Helleborine Epipactis phyllanthes
Dune Helleborine Epipactis dunensis
Marsh Helleborine Epipactis palustris
Sword-leaved Helleborine Cephalanthera longifolia
Birdsnest Orchid Neottia nidus-avis
Common Twayblade Neottia ovata
Lesser Twayblade Neottia cordata
Autumn Lady’s-tresses Spiranthes spiralis
Creeping Lady’s-tresses Goodyera repens
Small White Orchid Pseudorchis alba
Greater Butterfly Orchid Platanthera chlorantha
Lesser Butterfly Orchid Platanthera bifolia
Frog Orchid Coeloglossum viride
Pyramidal Orchid Anacamptis pyramidalis
Chalk Fragrant Orchid Gymnadenia conopsea
Common Spotted Orchid Dactylorhiza fuchsii
Heath Spotted Orchid Dactylorhiza maculata
Southern Marsh Orchid Dactylorhiza praetermissa
Northern Marsh Orchid Dactylorhiza purpurella
Early Marsh Orchid Dactylorhiza incarnata

Green-winged Orchid Anacamptis morio
Early Purple Orchid Orchis mascula
Man Orchid Orchis anthropophora
Burnt Orchid Neotinea ustulata
Lady Orchid Orchis purpurea
Military Orchid Orchis militaris
Monkey Orchid Orchis simia
Lizard Orchid Himantoglossum hircinum
Musk Orchid Herminium monorchis
Fly Orchid Ophrys insectifera
Bee Orchid Ophrys apifera
Early Spider Orchid Ophrys sphegodes
Lords-and-ladies Arum maculatum
Italian Lords-and-ladies Arum italicum
Bog Asphodel Narthecium ossifragum
Scottish Asphodel Tofieldia pusilla
Marsh Arrowgrass Triglochin palustre
Sea Arrowgrass Triglochin maritimum
Herb Paris Paris quadrifolia
Meadow Saffron Colchicum autumnale
Spring Crocus Crocus vernus
Montbretia Crocosmia × crocosmiiflora
Yellow Iris Iris pseudacorus
Stinking Iris Iris foetidissima
Fritillary Fritillaria meleagris
Yellow Star of Bethlehem Gagea lutea
Wild Daffodil Narcissus pseudonarcissus
Wild Tulip Tulipa sylvestris
Snowdrop Galanthus nivalis
Summer Snowflake Leucojum aestivum
Wild Onion Allium vineale
Field Garlic Allium oleraceum
Three-cornered Garlic Allium triquetrum
Few-flowered Garlic Allium paradoxum
Sand Garlic Allium scorodoprasum
Ramsons Allium ursinum
Grape Hyacinth Muscari neglectum
Solomon’s Seal Polygonatum multiflorum
Angular Solomon’s Seal Polygonatum odoratum
Lily of the Valley Convallaria majalis
Spiked Star of Bethlehem Ornithogalum pyrenaicum hyphen in dict
Star of Bethlehem Ornithogalum umbellatum
Drooping Star of Bethlehem Ornithogalum nutans
Spring Squill Scilla verna
Autumn Squill Scilla autumnalis
Bluebell Hyacinthoides non-scripta
Spanish Bluebell Hyacinthoides hispanica
Butcher’s Broom Ruscus aculeatus
Garden Asparagus Asparagus officinalis
Flowering Rush Butomus umbellatus
White Waterlily Nymphaea alba
Yellow Waterlily Nuphar lutea
Fringed Waterlily Nymphoides peltata
Common Water Crowfoot Ranunculus aquatilis
Ivy-leaved Crowfoot Ranunculus hederaceus
River Water Crowfoot Ranunculus fluitans
Spiked Water-milfoil Myriophyllum spicatum
Whorled Water-milfoil Myriophyllum verticillatum
Parrot’s Feather Myriophyllum aquaticum
Marestail Hippuris vulgaris
Water Violet Hottonia palustris
water starworts Callitriche spp.
Common Duckweed Lemna minor
Fat Duckweed L. gibba
Least Duckweed L. minuta
Ivy-leaved Duckweed L. trisulca
Greater Duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza
Greater Bladderwort Utricularia vulgaris
Lesser Bladderwort Utricularia minor
Sweet Flag Acorus calamus
Water Lobelia Lobelia dortmanna
Arrowhead Sagittaria sagittifolia
Floating Water-plantain Luronium natans
Water-plantain Alisma plantago-aquatica
Lesser Water-plantain Baldellia ranunculoides
Frogbit Hydrocharis morsus-ranae
Water Soldier Stratiotes aloides
Branched Bur-reed Sparganium erectum
Unbranched Bur-reed Sparganium emersum
Least Bur-reed Sparganium natans
Broad-leaved Pondweed Potamogeton natans
Bulrush Typha latifolia
Lesser Bulrush Typha angustifolia
Scots Pine Pinus sylvestris
Juniper Juniperus communis
Yew Taxus baccata
Box Buxus sempervirens
Bog Myrtle Myrica gale
Mountain Currant Ribes alpinum
Gooseberry Ribes uva-crispa
Red Currant Ribes rubrum
Black Currant Ribes nigrum
Flowering Currant Ribes sanguineum
Barberry Berberis vulgaris
Dyer’s Greenweed Genista tinctoria
Petty Whin Genista anglica
Broom Cytisus scoparius
Gorse Ulex europaeus
Western Gorse Ulex gallii
Dwarf Gorse Ulex minor
Tree Lupin Lupinus arboreus
Cherry Laurel Prunus laurocerasus
Wall Cotoneaster Cotoneaster horizontalis
Bramble Rubus fruticosus agg.
Dewberry Rubus caesius
Cloudberry Rubus chamaemorus
Stone Bramble Rubus saxatilis
Raspberry Rubus idaeus
Field Rose Rosa arvensis
Dog Rose Rosa canina
Burnet Rose Rosa spinosissima
Sweetbrier Rosa rubiginosa
Harsh Downy Rose Rosa tomentosa
Bird Cherry Prunus padus
Crab Apple Malus sylvestris
Blackthorn Prunus spinosa
Wild Cherry Prunus avium
Cherry Plum Prunus cerasifera
Wild Plum Prunus domestica
Rowan Sorbus aucuparia
Ash Fraxinus excelsior
Wild Service Tree Sorbus torminalis
Common Whitebeam Sorbus aria
Hawthorn Crataegus monogyna
Midland Hawthorn Crataegus laevigata
Dogwood Cornus sanguinea
Spindle Euonymus europaeus
Buckthorn Rhamnus cathartica
Alder Buckthorn Frangula alnus
Wych Elm Ulmus glabra
English Elm Ulmus procera
Small-leaved Elm Ulmus minor agg.
Beech Fagus sylvatica
Hornbeam Carpinus betulus
Pedunculate Oak Quercus robur
Sessile Oak Quercus petraea
Silver Birch Betula pendula
Downy Birch Betula pubescens
Alder Alnus glutinosa
Hazel Corylus avellana
White Willow Salix alba
Hybrid Crack Willow Salix × fragilis
Osier Salix viminalis
Purple Willow Salix purpurea
Almond Willow Salix triandra
Goat Willow Salix caprea
Grey Willow Salix cinerea
Bay Willow Salix pentandra
Eared Willow Salix aurita
Creeping Willow Salix repens
Tea-leaved Willow Salix phylicifolia
Aspen Populus tremula
Black Poplar Populus nigra
Grey Poplar Populus × canescens
White Poplar Populus alba
Sweet Chestnut Castanea sativa
Horse Chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum
Field Maple Acer campestre
Sycamore Acer pseudoplatanus
Small-leaved Lime Tilia cordata
Mistletoe Viscum album
Mezereon Daphne mezereum
Spurge Laurel Daphne laureola
Sea Buckthorn Hippophae rhamnoides
Shrubby Seablite Suaeda vera
Crowberry Empetrum nigrum
Bog Rosemary Andromeda polifolia
Bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus
Cranberry Vaccinium oxycoccos
Cowberry Vaccinium vitis-idaea
Bearberry Arctostaphylos uva-ursi
Heather Calluna vulgaris
Bell Heather Erica cinerea
Cross-leaved Heath Erica tetralix
Dorset Heath Erica ciliaris
Cornish Heath Erica vagans
Rhododendron Rhododendron ponticum
Shallon Gaultheria shallon
Tamarisk Tamarix gallica
Snowberry Symphoricarpos albus
Teaplants Lycium spp.
Buddleia Buddleja davidii
Holly Ilex aquifolium
Wild Privet Ligustrum vulgare
Elder Sambucus nigra
Dwarf Elder Sambucus ebulus
Guelder Rose Viburnum opulus
Wayfaring Tree Viburnum lantana
Traveller’s Joy Clematis vitalba
Hop Humulus lupulus
White Bryony Bryonia dioica
Black Bryony Tamus communis
Ivy Hedera helix
Honeysuckle Lonicera periclymenum
























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